IntroductionWhy Is Wellbeing Important in Schools?What is Wellbeing?Considerations: How Does Wellbeing Functions in LifeA Measure Suited for Your SchoolEthical ConsiderationsNecessary PermissionImplementationApplication of DataMeasures of Child Wellbeing Gratitude MeasuresWarwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS)Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C)EPOCH Measure of Adolescent Well-beingSix Seconds Youth Version (SEI-YV)Measures of Child Wellbeing at SchoolChildren’s Hope ScaleMultidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS)Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS)The Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale (SCWBS)Me and My Feelings (M&MF)Me and My School Questionnaire (M&MS)Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ)The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) (Adapted)Social Emotional Health Survey-Primary (SEHS-P)The School Attitude QuestionnaireThe PedsQL Measurement Model Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary (SEHS-S)The Student Resilience Survey (SRS)Holistic Student Assessment (HSA)Flourishing at School Survey (FAS)Measures of Adult WellbeingSubjective Happiness Scale (SHS)The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL)Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS)Flourishing Scale (FS)The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ)Comprehensive and Brief Inventory of Thriving (CIT & BIT)Mental Health Continuum Short and Long Form (MHC-SF)Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)The PERMA ProfilerMeasures of Adult Wellbeing at WorkTeacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ)Job-related Affective Well-being Scale (JAWS)The Workplace PERMA-ProfilerJob Satisfaction Survey (JSS)The Gallup Q12 Employee Engagement Questionnaire The PERMAH Workplace Survey Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ)Maslach Burnout Inventory: Educator's Survey (MBI-ES)Measures of Cultural WellbeingSchool Culture Triage SurveyMy Class Inventory-Short Form (MCI-SF)School-Level Environment Questionnaires (SLEQ)The Omnibus T-ScaleMy Class Inventory-Short Form for Teachers (TMCI-SF)Individualised Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ)ED School Climate Surveys (EDSCLES)Student Engagement Instrument (SEI)Classroom Environment ScaleOther Resources

The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) (Adapted)

This measure is for childrenThis is a free measure

Since its creation in 1993, The Psychological Sense of School Membership has been widely used to measure students’ sense of belonging at school. An adapted version of this measure, specifically modified to be developmentally appropriate for younger students, is the focus of this section.  This version has 18 items appropriate for students Age 8 and older. Rather than statements, the items are in the form of questions: For example, “‘Are teachers interested in students like you?” (Wagle et al., 2018, p. 574). Students rank each question on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from yes to no. This version has been tested with over 2,500 students in the United States, United Kingdom, and China.

Pros for Schools

Cons for Schools

Widely used
Focus version specifically adapted for larger age range of students
Several additional variations available
Multiple translations available


Suggestions for Further Research

Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79–90.

Wagle, R., Dowdy, E., Yang, C., Palikara, O., Castro, S., Nylund-Gibson, K., & Furlong, M. J. (2018). Preliminary investigation of the psychological sense of school membership scale with primary school students in a cross-cultural context. School Psychology International, 39(6), 568–586. 10.1177/0143034318803670