Reading the Room

Teacher Literacy Education Pedagogy and Its Potential at the Threshold of a Pandemic
Care TheoryThird Space TheoryTeacher Literacy EducationProfessional DevelopmentFormative Assessment
Providing high quality content in literacy for in-service teachers is an essential element of student success. This qualitative self-study used third space theory to investigate, in the context of the recent pandemic, the components that inform how literacy content can best be facilitated for in-service teachers. The results of this inquiry concurred with existing understandings of successful teacher literacy education, which indicate teacher educator expertise and content knowledge impact teacher learning. The findings add to existing knowledge by drawing linkages between informal, formative assessment of audio-visual cues, typical of in-person instruction but absent from most virtual instruction, and the teacher educator’s experience of care (Noddings, 2003). Crossing the threshold from in-person to remote instruction made necessary the reenvisioning of informal formative assessment in teacher literacy education, a process which deepened the teacher literacy educator’s experience of care, thereby allowing her to facilitate literacy content during the pandemic.

Context of the study

There has never been a time in history when literacy skills are needed to the degree they are in the world today, yet the National Report Card scores appear to indicate that America’s schools are failing to equip students with essential literacy skills, (National Center for Education Statistics, 2019, 2022). Research has shown that in-service teachers are an important element impacting student outcomes, and investing in teacher education can improve student proficiency (Chetty et al., 2011; Du Four et al., 2021; Goodwin & Rouleau, 2023). To teach literacy effectively, in-service teachers need to be masters of literacy content, and knowledgeable about theory, practice, and pedagogy (Muhammad, 2020). Thus, an important factor contributing to students’ positive literacy outcomes is teacher literacy education (Clark et al., 2016; Eisner, 1992; Moeller, 2005; Stronge, 2018), especially for marginalized students (Muhammad, 2020).

Teaching in-service educators is different from teaching students in classrooms (Zeichner, 2005). To facilitate learning for in-service teachers, teacher literacy educators (TLEs) require content knowledge, as well as affective qualities like trust building, honesty, valuing teacher autonomy, reflection, and the courage to take risks (Loughran, 2006). Other than the above understandings for TLEs, there is no agreement internationally about the best pedagogy for TLEs to use to facilitate the learning of in-service teachers. Accordingly, further research in this area is needed (Swennen & Van der Klink, 2009).

One of the researchers in this study, Mona, is a TLE, working with in-service teachers at multiple schools across several large school districts in the American Midwest. She relies heavily on relationships, participant engagement, reflection, and literacy knowledge to facilitate in-service teacher literacy content. As part of Mona’s TLE practice, we understand the facilitation of literacy content to refer to whole group professional development presentations of literacy information for licensed, in-service teachers working in K-12 classrooms, and we use the terms “in-service teachers,” “teachers,” and “participants” interchangeably. Mona works daily with teacher literacy education. She has long employed self-study to improve her instructional practice. When the pandemic hit, it required rethinking her pedagogy, which developed over twenty-five years of classroom teaching experience. This paper describes the challenges faced and lessons learned as this practitioner-researcher crossed this pedagogical threshold.


The need for quality literacy education took on greater urgency and complexity during the pandemic. What had worked with in-person teacher literacy education required significant adjustments to deliver in remote and/or hybrid instruction. Accordingly, Mona sought to explore her own practice through self-study, with the assistance of Kathleen, an in-service teacher and doctoral student in education. As Mona trained hundreds of in-service teachers in public, private, and charter schools, during the 2020-2021 school year, Mona employed self-study to answer the research question: How can I facilitate literacy content for in-service teachers in the context of the pandemic?

Creating a Safe Space for Discourse

In order to investigate the research question, the authors applied third space theory to create a safe, reflective environment for discourse on teacher literacy training and practices (Bhabha, 1994). Third space uses discussion to answer questions by placing the participants in an environment in which discourse is not socially and culturally constraining, but a productive place of reimagination for answering questions and bringing about positive change (see Figure 1) (Flessner, 2014; Hulme et al., 2009; Sawyer et al., 2016).

Figure 1

Homi Bhabha’s (1994) Third Space Representation

Kris Gutiérrez and colleagues (Gutiérrez et al.,1999) extended Bhabha’s (1994) third space theory to ascertain how students’ discourses can be used to scaffold learning (Moje et al., 2004), and this has been extended to in-service teacher education (Flessner, 2014). As shown in Figure 2, Mona’s funds of knowledge made up the first space and included Mona’s background, beliefs, and professional practices (Hogg, 2011; Moje et al., 2004). Funds of knowledge have been studied as sources of teacher knowledge that have value within curriculum and pedagogy and can contain new perspectives and provide additional understandings of practice (Qi & Mullen, 2022). The inclusion of funds of knowledge in our third space provided an opportunity to honor Mona’s unique experiences and skills. Second space was defined as the teaching space(s) for Mona’s professional development sessions. Third space was the virtual space in which Mona and Kathleen met to discuss and examine Mona’s TLE practice.

Figure 2

Representation of First, Second, and Third Space in This Study

Like many teachers, care was central to Mona’s practice. Nel Noddings (2003), the creator of care theory, suggests that “the one cared-for and the one-caring are reciprocally dependent” (p. 58). A teacher that cares-for their student is affectively moved by that student, as the teacher pays close attention to their needs and responds to them. Likewise, the student who is cared-for acknowledges the actions of the one-caring, the teacher. In this sense, care is reciprocal, involving deeply receptive attention between the one-caring and the cared-for. While the onus for care is on the teacher (the one-caring) if the student (the cared-for) fails to acknowledge the teacher’s care it creates a rupture which, if it persists, may result in serious consequences for the relationship (Noddings, 2003, 2012). In a student-teacher relationship such consequences might include disengagement, lethargy, or teacher burnout. This affective dimension of teaching matters not only for a TLE’s resilience and longevity in the TLE profession but also for student learning. Within care theory, teaching and learning are connected to an ongoing reciprocal cycle of care with learning as its by-product (Hinsdale, 2016; Noddings, 2012).


This inquiry utilized self-study methodology. Self-study allows the researcher to delve more deeply into the self-in-practice than is accessible through traditional, isolated reflection or statistically analyzing data (LaBoskey, 2004; Pinnegar & Hamilton, 2011). Consistent with prior research (Flessner, 2014), the authors paired self-study methodology with third space theory (Bhabha, 1994), which uses discussion to answer questions by placing the participants in an environment in which discourse is not socially and culturally constraining but a productive place of reimagination for answering questions and bringing about positive change (Flessner, 2014; Hulme et al., 2009; Sawyer et al., 2016). While self-study asks for transformation of researcher practice to occur and for findings to be disseminated, it expects these research actions to take place within a discoursal (i.e., third) space (Meidl, 2018). Accordingly, Kathleen served as the critical friend (Schuck & Russel, 2005), questioning and supporting Mona in her practice, through discourse in their third space.

Regular video conferences served as the authors’ Third Space, where Mona’s practice was discussed in depth and instructional materials were examined together. Data were collected about Mona’s practice through journaling, notes, virtual meeting recordings, electronic documents, and instructional materials (see Appendix A). Data were collected, coded, and analyzed between September 2020 and April 2021. We applied Saldaña’s (2016) codes-to-theory model to find emergent themes within the data through a process of initial, concept, and pattern coding. Additional measures were implemented to ensure trustworthiness including transparent use of data, coding and analysis; triangulation; and recursive discourse between critical friends (see Appendix B).


This study identified multiple emergent themes that impacted the facilitation of teacher literacy education in the context of remote instruction, key amongst which were TLE expertise and in-service teacher response. We present these findings in the sections below and then, discuss what these findings reveal about the role of care in Mona’s practice.

TLE Expertise: New Ways to Read the Room

Pre-Covid, when Mona delivered trainings in person, she relied heavily on visual and verbal cues from participants to assess acquisition of literacy content via eye contact, facial expressions, body language, non-verbal communication, and verbal conversations. Throughout her career, Mona had depended on her ability to read the room in person to conduct formative assessment. During Covid, however, remote instruction interrupted her ability to read the room. This left Mona questioning her expertise and reflecting on ways to improve her practice, including the elements TLEs need to facilitate literacy instruction (Muhammad, 2020): content knowledge (Loughran, 2006), being up-to-date on current research (Schmoker, 2021), flexibility (Boyd & Harris, 2010; Risko et al., 2008), and opportunities for rehearsal and participation (Payne, 2008; Schmoker, 2021). Reflecting with Kathleen helped Mona recognize specific impediments to facilitating content.

Specifically, the funds of knowledge which Mona had built teaching in-person were insufficient to navigate virtual instruction. Technology posed particular problems, both for TLE instruction and for in-service teacher practice. Not only did Mona have to learn how to facilitate her trainings using technology she had never even heard of before, but she was also expected to train teachers in their use. Further, the technology felt detached from the human element, especially when participants had their cameras and microphones off. Not only did Mona have to employ new technology, but she also needed to rediscover ways to connect with her participants, form relationships, and assess learning. Thus, Mona began to attend numerous online trainings to improve her virtual instruction.

During these virtual trainings, she noticed that she did not always enjoy participating or sharing responses in front of the group. Comparing these personal experiences with the in-service trainings she facilitated before the pandemic, Mona realized that there were noticeably different and more diverse forms of feedback than she had ever used. For example, a Google Form, Padlet, Pear Deck, Mentimeter, or Jamboard could be used to encourage multiple ways to participate and solicit public and/or private feedback in a virtual setting. In person, Mona had thought she was getting robust and accurate feedback from her participants by reading the room. However, as she reflected with Kathleen, Mona realized that “Not all learners are comfortable sharing with a large group” (April 2, 2021). Indeed, only a limited number of teachers had really ever shared; there were other voices in the room who often chose not to share in front of the group. Mona realized her methods for receiving feedback were not robust or equitable. She had been rigidly defining how to read the room, a choice that was more about her than those for whom she was facilitating literacy learning.

The intense and oftentimes uncomfortable study of Mona’s practice allowed her and Kathleen to see where Mona’s strengths were and where there was room for growth. “Hearing, understanding, then enacting what my participants need to access and engage in ways that suit them best is what I am wondering about. Can I do more when we get back to face-to-face to provide access points to information and opportunities for responding to all my adult learners?” (April 6, 2021). Through this work, she realized that reading the room through sight and sound was not the whole picture, “...seeing isn’t everything. It isn’t equitable. Not everyone wants to turn and talk to the person next to them. Not everyone wants to share with the group” (April 6, 2021).

Realizing this, Mona began to offer teachers alternate ways to engage in her trainings. She provided opportunities for quiet reflection and started to use platforms like Padlet and Jamboard that could be anonymous. She also invited private messaging in the chat. This gave participants the real-time opportunity to ask questions, provide feedback, and engage in ways that were completely private. In-service teachers responded positively to these changes in Mona’s practice. For example, during one training, a participant private-messaged Mona to affirm that the content being presented was valuable and transferable to the authentic context of their classroom. As Mona developed her expertise in virtual instruction, she became a more flexible, responsive practitioner. Moving forward, she realized there was more than one way to read the room.

In-Service Teacher Response

Just as TLE expertise is central to effective instruction, our data revealed that the dispositions of in-service teachers attending Mona’s trainings also played a key role in instruction. Specifically, participants’ level of engagement in and receptivity to trainings impacted Mona’s instruction.

Reading the room pre-pandemic, Mona connected with in-service teachers via eye contact and through conversations intended to connect, unify, and subsequently form a TLE/in-service teacher relationship, the kind of pedagogical relationships which some scholars have suggested are essential for learning (Stengel, 2004). Remote instruction, though, deprived Mona of the in-the-moment visual and verbal feedback, which she had come to depend on throughout her career. As she observed in one journal entry, “Feeling like I am not cut out for this. Feedback was good, but hardly any participant interaction. I felt like I was just doing all the talking” (January 11, 2021), an experience that left her full of self-doubt.

This was exacerbated by barriers to participation created by technology use. For example, teachers regularly chose to keep their cameras off and microphones muted throughout trainings, creating a veritable wall, blocking Mona from audio-visual cues. And, when Mona adapted her instruction to incorporate new technologies, like Jamboad, to allow written and drawn participation, she found many in-service teachers were not “tech savvy enough for it- even with instruction from my end” (January 11, 2021). Despite these frustrations, Mona continued troubleshooting ways to connect with in-service teachers. She imagined what participants looked like to better teach them, and she sent affirmations to them verbally and in writing throughout virtual presentations, gradually letting go of her expectation that there be relational reciprocity as she had once experienced it.

By letting go of her need to see and hear participants to form relationships with them, she found openings to connect in new ways. Mona began to tell participants to “feel free to engage in the training today as you are able” (16 April 2021). Chat conversations, exit tickets, and follow-up emails provided her with new types of formative feedback that informed her practice, while also affirming that relationships were indeed formed–even though they took on a new appearance in this virtual environment. Further, these new forms of data helped her discern factors that might be at play behind the screens when in-service teachers were not able to fully engage in her sessions.

Reading the (virtual) room for cues about the culture, climate, and technological comfort within different teacher education trainings showed vast differences in the engagement of participants. During some trainings, participants were engaged in active questioning and responding, “This group is really engaged and motivated, and it puts them at another level for receiving information” (February 5, 2021). However, this was not the case for all participants. Within a few moments of trying to launch Jamboard with one group, a private message came through in the chat that the participants were not proficient in using that platform. So Mona changed her facilitation, transitioning immediately to participating in the chat. This experience reminded her that even in a pandemic, simplicity and clarity in teaching have a powerful impact on learning (Fisher et al., 2016). Yet, technology was not the only factor impacting teacher engagement.

Oftentimes, organizational factors, like teacher-administration relationships, time constraints, or administrative planning processes, impacted the culture and climate of the schools with which Mona worked. While the relationship-building with participants happened during instructional time, the foundation for instruction began when school administrators reached out to Mona’s organization to request training. This could begin weeks or months of preparation, where Mona would learn about teacher learning needs, meet with school leaders, and design TLE content tailored to a school’s needs. If teachers and administrators did not have a good working relationship, however, the quality of her preparation was impacted, as was the receptivity of in-service teachers to the TLE trainings. The novel demands of teaching during Covid often created stress on these teacher-administrator relationships, which were made evident to Mona through emails, meetings, and scheduling changes prior to TLE facilitation. Accordingly, when participants were not engaged in training activities or expressed struggles with difficult circumstances occurring within their institutions, she initially tried to compensate for these institutional issues by investing unstainable amounts of time in planning lessons that were poorly received. Only through reflection in our third space did Mona begin to realize that teacher-administrator relationships, though they impacted her participants’ response to her instruction, were beyond her control. By differentiating between factors within her control and those beyond it, she was able to create healthier boundaries and dedicate energy more explicitly to those pedagogical practices over which she had control.

Discussion: Recognizing Care Within TLE

As noted above, more than simply a mode of in-the-moment formative assessment, Mona entered the pandemic with the well-established practice of using visual and verbal cues from in-person instruction to build and nurture relationships with her in-service teacher participants. Importantly though, she did not recognize, at first, that this practice was functioning as more than just a formative assessment. Only through conversation in our Third Space did the practice of care emerge as a topic of conversation. After reviewing a presentation slide deck that Mona initially delivered in September 2020, Kathleen wrote,

curious to see you lead the whole session with the idea of “support.” Did your feedback bear out that sentiment was received? It reminds me of Nel Noddings Care Theory. She posits, among other things, that care is reciprocal and must be acknowledged by the cared-for” (January 5, 2021).

This was the first time that care theory was identified as a meaningful heuristic for understanding the challenge of teaching during the pandemic.

Analysis of our data revealed that both Mona’s TLE practice and the effects of her practice on her emotional life showed signs of care. Regarding the former, Mona repeatedly built into her lessons discussion of “teacher support,” and she reported on one-on-one coaching sessions with teachers and teacher-coaches with deep concern for their personal wellbeing and professional success. In short, Mona was engrossed in her participants’ lives, a key characteristic of caring-for. Further, when lessons did not go well, and/or the preparation she put into lessons was disproportionate to the impact of her lessons on participants, she was deeply troubled and began to express signs of emotional burnout. This, we’ve noted above, is an indicator of disruption in the caring-relationship. Such disruption makes sense within the Covid context because Mona was deprived of the traditional means by which she understood her students acknowledged her caring-for them, including eye contact, verbal responses, smiles or frowns, visual evidence of note-taking, and/or heads nodding. Absent these visual and verbal cues, she felt unmoored. Until Mona identified and adopted new ways to build and strengthen relationships with her students, allowing new modes of reciprocal affect to pass between them, she persisted in this unhealthy state, which she described as feeling “overwhelmed,” “incompetent,” and unbalanced and led to “lost sleep.”

One step in revitalizing Mona’s practice was to understand more clearly how care operated in her practice. Analysis of our data revealed that each student-teacher relationship, though distinct, was built through cyclical iterations of four elements: relationships, listening, thinking, and responding (see Appendix C). Further, we understand relationship functioned as both a core element and a product of this process. Mona sought relationships with in-service teachers and deepened those relationships through listening to them, thinking about their feedback, and responding to what they shared with her. We imagine these four elements as a cycle of care (see Figure 3), and we suggest this is consistent with care theory (Noddings, 1984), generally, and its extensions (Valenzuela, 1999).

Figure 3

Cycle of Care Framework

The utility of this model is that it allowed us to identify more precisely where disruption was happening in the care cycle and what that disruption actually was. This, in turn, allowed Mona to implement more constructive responses through her teaching practice. For example, Kathleen and Mona wondered: When in-service teachers don’t respond to a question in a session, is it really apathy, or are participants not responding because they are uncomfortable responding in a large group; overwhelmed with stress; or affected by something else? Questions such as these led Mona to consider the ethical implications of TLE practice and, ultimately, redesign how she solicits feedback, in order to be more equitable. Further, she realized that in order to set boundaries for herself, she needed to differentiate between what is and is not within her control in the learning environment, and to do so, she needs to better understand how policies and politics that influence her facilitation (Cuenca, 2019). By doing so, she could respond to her students more effectively and deepen the relationships she has with them. That is, by understanding her context of instruction more deeply, she could better care for herself and, as a result, better care for her participants.


This work endeavored to answer the question: How can teacher literacy education be facilitated for in-service teachers in the context of the pandemic? We identified multiple emergent themes that impacted the facilitation of teacher literacy education, in the context of remote and hybrid instruction during the pandemic: Teacher literacy educator expertise and in-service teacher learning. Care was later identified as an analytical heuristic, and a care framework was put forward to help visualize our data.

This study indicated that TLE expertise--including content knowledge, delivery, and reflexive practice--had the potential to enhance teacher literacy education. Covid led to unique teaching and learning conditions, namely remote and hybrid instruction, in which veteran teaching practices were no longer possible. Mona responded by learning as much as she could to support her evolving practice, including literacy and technological content as well as analysis of herself as a participant in trainings to better imagine the experiences of her in-service teachers. These processes reconnected her with the understanding that good facilitation is clear and simple, and good facilitators have flexibility, within healthy boundaries. Mona also worked to become more equitable and fair in her requests for feedback from in-service teachers, releasing her need for audio-visual cues to confirm participant engagement.

Our findings further showed in-service teachers themselves affected the facilitation of content through their relationship with the TLE and their engagement in the literacy trainings. As the study progressed, Mona noted that both relationships and engagement looked different for each participant, and visual and verbal cues were not essential for formative assessment. Through reflection in our virtual third space, Mona became more proficient at discerning what forces were at play behind the screens affecting relationships and engagement. She also became more adept at connecting with participants and discerning levels of engagement in remote and hybrid modes of instruction.

Using care theory for our analysis, we realized Mona’s struggles with TLE during Covid were linked directly to her dependence on audio-visual cues, a dependence which she had been habituated to during decades of in-person classroom instruction. These struggles were both effective and affective in nature. That is, Mona had used audio-visual cues for in-the-moment formative assessments during in-person instruction, and they contributed to Mona’s experience of care, by which “the contributions of the cared-for [students] sustain [the one-caring] in [their] attempts to care” (Noddings, 2003, p. xxii). The absence of such cues made remote instruction, initially, feel unsustainable. However, re-envisioning informal formative assessment for remote instruction reinvigorated her experience of care and confidence in her instruction.

The novel instructional context of Covid revealed that, for Mona, reading the room encompasses more than just the in-the-moment assessment of what’s happening within content delivery. It involves reading the room more wholly and equitably through a cycle of care-inspired lens. By examining Mona’s practice in our third space, she was better able to understand and facilitate content during the pandemic to be more responsive to her in-service teachers, empowering her to re-engage in caring student-teacher relationships.


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Appendix A

Data Collection

Virtual MeetingsThe authors engaged in virtual meetings at least once a month to:
  • Conduct self-study of the first author’s practice with the critical friend
  • Engage in discourse of data in the reflection tool
  • Analyze the data in the reflection tool
Electronic DocumentsElectronic documents (emails, texts, the collection tools) captured:
  • Reflections of the first author on her practice
  • Notations from the critical friend
  • Journaling in the comments
  • Analytic memos
  • Questions from the first author and the critical friend
  • Member checking
Teacher Education MaterialsTeacher education materials were comprised of:
  • Slides from presentations created by the first author
  • Online learning modules created by the first author
  • Self-created videos by the first author
  • Resources (anchor texts, journal articles)
  • Electronic teaching materials (Jamboard, Pear Deck)
Data were collected in a data collection tool, a coding tool, and a conclusion tool. These tools were collectively 38 pages in length and contained over 10,000 words. The data collection tool was the primary source for analysis.

Appendix B

Coding and Trustworthiness

Coding (Hinsdale, 2016; Noddings, 2012; Saldaña, 2016)Initial coding
  • Pre-coding of data into emerging categories
  • Analytic memos from the critical friend and first author
  • Member checking
  • Reading and re-reading data related to practice
Concept coding
  • Small actions related to the big picture were analyzed
  • Data were classified into 22 categories for reflection
  • Consolidation of data to harmonize with the big picture of what the data is showing
  • Additional analytic memos were created
  • Discussion and analysis with the critical friend were conducted to assist in extending the categories into emergent themes to be further analyzed in the next coding cycle.
Pattern coding
  • The 22 categories were grouped into smaller emergent themes
  • Emergent themes were discerned: reading the room and care
  • The researchers in this work made their data, methods of coding, and links between data, findings, and interpretations transparent (Loughran, 2004).
  • This study triangulated data between virtual meetings, electronic documents, and teacher education materials to study the self in practice through an increase in robustness and analysis of different perspectives (Mena & Russel, 2017).
  • This work also utilized a critical friend to analyze from an external vantage point (Mischler, 1990).
  • A rigorous and critical analysis of the first author’s facilitation of content to inservice teachers was conducted (Hamilton & Pinnegar, 2015).

Appendix C:

Cycle of Care Framework

RelationshipsRelationships are at the heart of care theory. They form the foundation on which teaching and learning are built. Relationships are facilitated by Mona initially and then the in-service teacher reciprocates by being receptive to creating and building this relationship. This giving and receiving between Mona and the in-service teacher to create and build the relationship facilitates the cycle of care.
ListeningListening encompasses Mona collecting data from in-service teachers. She collects audio-visual data, data from activities in her facilitation of literacy content, and notes and notices any type of information that can provide her with data about her in-service teachers to inform teaching and learning. The teachers reciprocate this care by attending to Mona during trainings and respecting her (i.e. not arguing or acting rude).
ThinkingThinking is the act of processing the data from the listening phase. Mona sorts through the data and determines what next steps she will take. In-service teachers facilitate the cycle of care by thoughtfully considering the content Mona is facilitating.
RespondingMona responds to in-service teachers by facilitating literacy content. For example, creating slide decks with content, resources, and ways to support teaching and learning. In-service teachers reciprocate care and facilitate the cycle of care by engaging in activities such as discussion or a Jamboard activity.
Linda Abrams

New Jersey City University

Valerie A. Allison

Susquehanna University

Derek Anderson

Northern Michigan University

Monica Anthony

Georgia Gwinnett College

Mahtob Aqazade

Rice University

Stephanie Baer

Lincoln Public Schools

Christine Beaudry

Nevada State University

Blake Bennett

University of Auckland

Katarina Blennow

Lund University

Richard Bowles

Mary Immaculate College

Rebecca Buchanan

University of Maine

Frances Burgess

St Mary's University College Belfast

Brandon M. Butler

Old Dominion University

Trudy Cardinal

University of Alberta

Kevin Cataldo

Montclair State University

Lizhen Chen

University of Ohio

Margaret Clark

Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts

Jane McIntosh Cooper

University of Houston

Maura Coulter

Dublin City University

Cheryl J. Craig

Texas A&M University

Alicia R. Crowe

Kent State University

Gayle A. Curtis

University of Houston

Jackie Cusimano

University of New Mexico

Charity Dacey

Felician University

Sophie Degener

National Louis University

Mark Diacopoulos

Pittsburg State University

Elizabeth Hope Dorman

Fort Lewis College

Kristina J. Doubet

James Madison University

Tess M. Dussling

Saint Michael’s College

Christi U. Edge

Northern Michigan University

Christi Edge is a Professor of Education and serves as the Director of Graduate Reading Programs and the Extended Learning and Community Engagement Scholar at Northern Michigan University. Her resear...
Alysha J. Farrell

Brandon University

Linda Fitzgerald

University of Northern Iowa

Michael Flannery

Dublin City University

Maria Assunção Flores

University of Minho

Shelby Forsyth

Alpine School District

Charlotte Frambaugh-Kritzer

University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

Rodrigo Fuentealba

Universidad Autónoma, Santiago, Chile

Dawn Garbett

University of Auckland

Wendy Gardiner

Pacific Lutheran University

Leslie M. Gauna

University of Houston

Natasha Gerstenschlager

Western Kentucky University

Karen Rut Gísladóttir

University of Iceland

Melva R. Grant

Old Dominion University

Elizabeth Grassi

Regis University

Hafdís Guðjónsdóttir

University of Iceland

Laura C. Haniford

University of New Mexico

Rena Heap

The University of Auckland

Susan L. Hillman

Saginaw Valley State University

Tierney B. Hinman

University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Janice Huber

University of Alberta

Ybeth Iglesias

University of New Mexico

Bjarne Isaksen

University of South-Eastern Norway

Ronny Johansen

University of South-Eastern Norway

Candy L. Jones

Brandon University

Svanborg Rannveig Jónsdóttir

University of Iceland

Signe E. Kastberg

Purdue University

Michaelann Kelley

Mount St. Joseph University

Julian Kitchen

Brock University

Michael W. Krell

University of Maryland

Celina Dulude Lay

Brigham Young University

Devon Lejman

Alexandria High School

Laura J. Link

University of North Dakota

Alyson E. Lischka

Middle Tennessee State University

Kelly Lormand

Montclair State University

Kathie MacKay

Brigham Young University

Janne Madsen

University of South-Eastern Norway

Martin Malmström

University of Malmö

Tanya Manning-Lewis

University of Victoria

Elaine Marhefka

University of New Hampshire

Lungile Masinga

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Ian A. Matheson

Queen's University

Mark D. McCarthy

Springfield College

Barbara E. McNeil

University of Regina

Tamar Meskin

Durban University of Technology

Diane M. Miller

University of Houston

Tammy Mills

University of Maine

Margaret Mnayer

University of Kansas

Mina Money

Nebo School District

Carol Moriarty

Northern Arizona University

M. Shaun Murphy

University of Saskatchewan

M. Shaun Murphy

University of Saskatchewan

Inbanathan Naicker

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Megumi Nishida

University of Iceland

Chris North

University of Canterbury

Mary Nugent

Marino Institute of Education

Kevin O'Connor

Mount Royal University

Anne O'Dwyer

Mary Immaculate College

Edda Óskarsdóttir

University of Iceland

Alan Ovens

University of Auckland

Kevin Patton

California State University — Chico

Jason Pearson

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Rod Philpot

The University of Auckland

Daisy Pillay

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Cecilia Pincock

Brigham Young University

Stefinee E. Pinnegar

Brigham Young University

A St. George native, Dr. Pinnegar graduated from Dixie College (now DSU) and Southern Utah State (now SUU). She taught on the Navajo Reservation then completed an M.A. in English at BYU. She taught fo...
Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

University of Nottingham

Pamela J. Powell

Northern Arizona University

Laurie A. Ramirez

Appalachian State University

Mary F. Rice

University of New Mexico

Mary Frances Rice is an assistant professor of literacy at the University of New Mexico. She teaches writing pedagogy and digital composition. Her scholarship uses interdisciplinary approaches to stud...
Miriam Richards

Alpine School District

Michael Richardson

Brigham Young University

Sue Ellen Richardson

University of Indianapolis

Kevin Roberge

University of Maine

Kerry Robertson

University of Victoria

Tom Russell

Queen's University

Rebecca M. Sánchez

University of New Mexico

Pamela Schmidt

Iowa Education Association

Kathleen M. Sellers

Miami University

Lavina Sequeira

Felician University

Melanie Shoffner

James Madison University

Mia Sosa-Provencio

University of New Mexico

Jeff Spanke

Ball State University

Amy Staples

University of Northern Iowa

Gladys Sterenberg

Mount Royal University

Elizabeth Y. Stevens

Roberts Wesleyan College

Elizabeth Petroelje Stolle

Grand Valley State University

Kathryn Strom

California State University East Bay

Siv Svendsen

University of South-Eastern Norway

Tony Sweeney

Maynooth University

Lynn Thomas

Université de Sherbrooke

Deborah Tidwell

University of Northern Iowa

Amy Tondreau

Austin Peay State University

Tanya van der Walt

Durban University of Technology

Linda van Laren

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Jennifer Webster

Middle Tennessee State University

Kristen L. White

Northern Michigan University

Gretchen M. Whitman

Columbia College

Nance S. Wilson

University of New York at Cortland

Diane Yendol-Hoppey

University of North Florida

Helena Omaña Zapata

University of New Mexico

Eve Zehavi

University of Houston

Mona Beth Zignego

Cooperative Education Service Agency

Mona Beth Zignego

Cooperative Education Service Agency

Kathleen M. Sellers

Miami University

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