Acknowledgements1. Language and Identity1.1. What Is a Speech Community?1.2. Coercive vs. Collaborative Relations1.3. Language Minority Stories2. Who Are English Learners?2.1. Reflection Model2.2. Inclusive Pedagogy2.2. Makoto Critical Incident2.3. Assumptions to Rethink about English Learners2.4. Critical Learning Domains3. Understanding Theory3.1. Communication, Pattern, and Variability 3.2. Five Curriculum Guidelines3.3. Indicators of Instructional Conversation (IC)3.4. Indicators of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy3.5. Standards for Effective Pedagogy3.6. Examining Current Realities4. Input4.1. Input and Native Language Acquisition4.2. Input and Second Language Acquisition4.3. The Interdependence Hypothesis4.4. The Threshold Hypothesis4.5. Vocabulary Development and Language Transfer4.6. Text Modification5. Interaction5.1. Code Switching and Interaction5.2. Characteristics of Modifications for Interaction5.3. How Can Teachers Help Second Language Learners Begin to Communicate?5.4. Classroom Routines and Participation Structures5.5. We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom6. Stages of Development6.1. Proficiency Levels Defined7. Errors and Feedback7.1. Points to Remember About Errors7.2. Effective and Appropriate Feedback for English Learners8. Types of Proficiencies8.1. Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children8.2. Instructional Conversation in Native American Classroom 8.3. Student Motivation to Learn8.4. Language Learning Strategies: An Update8.5. Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning9. Types of Performances9.1. Understanding BICS and CALP9.2. The Order of Acquisition and The Order of Use9.3. Schumann's Acculturation Model9.4. Implications From the Threshold and Interdependence Hypotheses9.5. Lily Wong Fillmore’s Cognitive and Social Strategies for Second Language Learners10. Classroom Practices and Language AcquisitionIndex

Index

communication 29errors 19feedback 43input 36interaction 51pattern 33pedagogy 27performances 8proficiencies 6stages of development 5variability 6

communication

What Is a Speech Community?

  1. …speech is the language of this earliest communication. Through this community, w…

Assumptions to Rethink about English Learners

  1. Assumption #10: communication is not possible because of language barriers.

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. Concept 1: communication
  2. Chart 1. The Concept of communication
  3. …ting are important literacy skills, but communication is the raison d’être of…
  4. …ating daily opportunities for authentic communication. When teachers establish a…
  5. In summary, the concept of communication asks teachers to analyze the types of i…
  6. …am Teachers focuses on three concepts—communication, Pattern, and Variability
  7. …ies as described through the concept of communication.
  8. …to consider three SL literacy concepts: communication, Pattern, and Variability.…

Standards for Effective Pedagogy

  1. Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspec…

Input and Native Language Acquisition

  1. …unity and to increase the efficiency of communication.
  2. … commands and yes-no questions in their communication with children than they do…
  3. Focuses on comprehension and communication and relies on his/her innate capacity…

Input and Second Language Acquisition

  1. …, is to enrich the context in which the communication is taking place by using g…

The Interdependence Hypothesis

  1. …erformed the Mexico group in basic oral communication skills in English.…
  2. …d the essentials of basic interpersonal communication. That is, their pronunciat…
  3. …distinction between Basic Interpersonal communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitiv…
  4. …nd it is used primarily in face to face communication and does not place great d…

The Threshold Hypothesis

  1. …ning tasks use strategies that embedded communication and texts in a rich and re…

We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom

  1. Accurate. Accurate input—communication that is grammatically correct with prop…
  2. …h real goals. We negotiate meaning. Our communication that is functional refers …
  3. … group is a natural source of redundant communication. As the students in a smal…
  4. …edback and correction in the process of communication (“Give me that,” “Su…

Proficiency Levels Defined

  1. …ritten language is an important form of communication, 2) scanning occurs from l…
  2. Basic Interpersonal communication Skills (BICS)
  3. Basic Interpersonal communication Skills (BICS)
  4. Basic Interpersonal communication Skills (BICS)

Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children

  1. …ify these differences through classroom communication patterns. For example, som…

errors

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. • Accept and respond to feedback on errors
  2. Principle 2: errors and Feedback
  3. …udent, correcting low-level grammatical errors is not simply a matter of knowing…
  4. …stem is restructured, sometimes causing errors in production that look like back…
  5. Teacher work is to respond to errors with appropriate feedback, learning opportu…
  6. …ut, Interaction, Stages of Development, errors and Feedback, Types of Proficienc…
  7. …ciples: 1) Stages of Development and 2) errors and Feedback. Chart 2 defines the…
  8. Principle 2: errors and Feedback

Proficiency Levels Defined

  1. …s and not so much on correcting student errors.

Points to Remember About Errors

  1. Teemant, A. (1988). Lexical errors in ESL Compositions. Unpublished master’s t…

Effective and Appropriate Feedback for English Learners

  1. …he developmental nature and the role of errors in language learning, we recogniz…
  2. … native speakers judged the severity of errors, errors in appropriateness are co…
  3. …is being practiced. Correcting too many errors may frustrate the learner and hal…
  4. … English learners (ELs). In addition to errors in content mastery and literacy, …
  5. …nd developmental level and attending to errors based on the task goals (i.e., fo…
  6. …owth mindset, which enables them to see errors as opportunities to learn, grow, …
  7. …evaluations encourages students to view errors positively and develop a learning…
  8. …ck accordingly. With language learners, errors occur on two levels -- content an…
  9. …ills are still limited. When we correct errors and provide feedback in a way tha…

feedback

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. • Accept and respond to feedback on errors
  2. Principle 2: Errors and feedback
  3. • Provide direct and specific feedback with guidance for improving quality
  4. …r’s testing of hypotheses. Errors and feedback are essential to this learning …
  5. …andings and accepting and responding to feedback are essential for improving the…
  6. …s to respond to errors with appropriate feedback, learning opportunities, or ser…
  7. …tion, Stages of Development, Errors and feedback, Types of Proficiencies, and Ty…
  8. …Stages of Development and 2) Errors and feedback. Chart 2 defines these principl…
  9. …etter positioned to provide appropriate feedback and make individual and curricu…
  10. • Provide feedback focused on meaning and then form
  11. …ide timely, meaningful, and encouraging feedback matched to current development…
  12. …elop social skills in getting and using feedback from peers. Even though this pr…
  13. Principle 2: Errors and feedback

Standards for Effective Pedagogy

  1. …ls don’t fit. Thus both standards and feedback are weakened, with the predicta…

Input and Native Language Acquisition

  1. …ey expect you to be saying. This social feedback has a marvelous effect on your …
  2. … it correctly. Also, as adults give you feedback on your attempts to speak, it i…
  3. …ral new words every day and, as you get feedback from caregivers, you continue t…

Classroom Routines and Participation Structures

  1. Classroom Routine: Initiate-Response-feedback (IRF) Pattern

We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom

  1. …eraction, a student is lucky to get one feedback opportunity; in the same 20 min…
  2. … asking the question and then providing feedback in the form of praise, comment,…
  3. …ntial, developmentally appropriate, and feedback-rich.
  4. feedback Rich. Students talk to each other, providing immediate feedback and cor…

Effective and Appropriate Feedback for English Learners

  1. Appropriate feedback
  2. The feedback that we provide to our English learners still needs to be targeted,…
  3. Brookhart, S. (2007). feedback that fits. Educational leadership.  65(4), 54-5…
  4. Effective feedback is specific, which means it is tangible and transparent, acti…
  5. Providing balanced feedback also means attending to the sociocultural appropriat…
  6. Along with balanced and differentiated feedback, language learners need feedback
  7. …ns, G. (2012). Seven keys to effective feedback. Educational leadership. 70(1),…
  8. Teaching less and providing more feedback that is targeted, specific, and timely…
  9. …st always consider how we could use our feedback to help our learners move forwa…
  10. When providing supportive feedback on student’s writing, teachers should follo…
  11. We receive feedback all the time. For example, when we are asked to repeat what …
  12. Effective feedback is timely, meaning it is well-timed, prompt, and ongoing. Eff…
  13. Effective feedback is targeted, which means it is goal-referenced and consistent…
  14. Additionally, when we differentiate feedback, we need to make sure that there is…
  15. Differentiated feedback builds on specific feedback and is related to the term d…
  16. Supportive feedback also enables the transfer of knowledge of language, content,…
  17. An example of supportive feedback through recasting:  
  18. … Miller, K. (2012). Research says good feedback is targeted, specific, timely.
  19. Effective feedback

Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children

  1. …and on what the child has already said. feedback from peers will also help the c…

Lily Wong Fillmore’s Cognitive and Social Strategies for Second Language Learners

  1. Teachers can help learners seek feedback and encourage peers and native-speakers…

input

Language Minority Stories

  1. …ssion from: Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implication…

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. … a new language requires access to rich input (listening/reading) and multiple a…
  2. Krashen, S. D. (1982). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Lo…
  3. …n asks teachers to analyze the types of input their SL learners are exposed to, …
  4. …ition requires access to comprehensible input; that is, written and oral input t…
  5. …lity—and six accompanying principles: input, Interaction, Stages of Developmen…
  6. For the principle of input, student work is to read a lot—for aesthetics, plea…
  7. …ly plan instruction, using a variety of input and interaction opportunities as d…
  8. When teachers attend to input in their instruction, they focus on the oral and w…
  9. Principle 1: input
  10. Principle 1: input
  11. In addition to input, learners must also have multiple and varied opportunities …

Five Curriculum Guidelines

  1. Krashen, S. D. (1982). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Lo…

Input and Native Language Acquisition

  1. …ng their native language need access to input, they can comprehend. Interaction …

Input and Second Language Acquisition

  1. Strategies for Providing Comprehensible input
  2. …for increasing the comprehensibility of input, especially in classroom instructi…
  3. One final aspect of input that many believe to be important is that of noticing.…
  4. …in why two learners exposed to the same input might not acquire the L2 at the sa…
  5. …among the most effective, is negotiated input. This involves both speakers and l…
  6. …dels of L2 acquisition acknowledge that input, i.e., language heard in a meaning…
  7. The fourth part of the model is the ‘input hypothesis.’ In it, Krashen claim…
  8. …alyst to spur research into the role of input in L2 acquisition. In what follows…
  9. …hers and students play a role in making input more comprehensible.

The Threshold Hypothesis

  1. … receive enables them to comprehend the input (both written and oral) and partic…

We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom

  1. input
  2. …operative learning provides the kind of input, output, and context that supports…
  3. …ine how cooperative learning transforms input, output, and context variables in …
  4. Accurate. Accurate input—communication that is grammatically correct with prop…
  5. …ompetence: Some roles of comprehensible input in its development. In S.M. Gass, …
  6. …lex interaction of a number of critical input, output, and context variables. An…
  7. …t. A student may receive comprehensible input in the zone of proximal developmen…
  8. …e nature of a cooperative group focuses input in the zone of proximal developmen…
  9. …le. To facilitate language acquisition, input must be comprehended (Krashen, 198…
  10. Language acquisition is fostered by input that is comprehensible, developmentall…

Proficiency Levels Defined

  1. …d interaction. By socializing, they get input, that is, they get opportunities t…

Lily Wong Fillmore’s Cognitive and Social Strategies for Second Language Learners

  1. …l strategies involve “ways to receive input on which to base the language lear…

interaction

What Is a Speech Community?

  1. …ed rules of conversation and linguistic interaction. We have learned to identify…
  2. …or old concepts. We shared language and interaction patterns with our peers that…
  3. …d we simply use the language and social interaction patterns that come to us. On…
  4. …mmunities involve regular, face-to-face interaction between us and a larger grou…
  5. …eir mother’s voice and the noises and interactions in her environment in the w…
  6. …art, we can decide what kinds of social interaction and linguistic styles, regis…
  7. How do they influence classroom interactions and academic achievement?

Coercive vs. Collaborative Relations

  1. …inds us that it is in that face-to-face interaction between adult and child or c…
  2. …ice in how to orchestrate our classroom interactions regardless of institutional…
  3. …uable, complex, or desirable because of interaction with the majority culture, l…
  4. … Relations of Power Manifested in Micro-interactions Between Subordinated Commun…
  5. …pace). What also has an impact on those interactions are policies, practices, pr…

Inclusive Pedagogy

  1. …thinking about their practice and their interaction with and teaching of their s…
  2. …ontrol of the teacher but exists in the interaction between the teacher and the …

Makoto Critical Incident

  1. …has always been shy and reserved in her interactions with peers. Her only and be…

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. …d multiple and varied opportunities for interaction (speaking/writing). The prin…
  2. …ly in readings and meaningful classroom interactions.
  3. …anguage typical of oral, conversational interaction to comprehending nuanced, sp…
  4. … are exposed to, what opportunities for interaction are available to students, a…
  5. …and six accompanying principles: Input, interaction, Stages of Development, Erro…
  6. …texts, more not fewer opportunities for interaction, more not less flexibility, …
  7. Principle 2: interaction
  8. …struction, using a variety of input and interaction opportunities as described t…
  9. Second language acquisition requires interaction. Learners develop greater langu…
  10. Principle 2: interaction
  11. …e multiple and varied opportunities for interaction. When SL learners work to ma…
  12. …gely as a result of direct and multiple interactions with peers and teachers in …

Standards for Effective Pedagogy

  1. Rogoff, B. (1991). Social interaction as apprenticeship in thinking: Guidance an…

Examining Current Realities

  1. … to programs, curriculum, and classroom interaction processes in this identifica…

Input and Native Language Acquisition

  1. Characteristics of Caregiver-Child interactions
  2. …e and learns the joy of turn-taking and interaction.
  3. …d access to input, they can comprehend. interaction with others increases childr…
  4. Engages the child in social interaction.

Input and Second Language Acquisition

  1. …n takes place naturally. In adult-child interaction, as in teacher-fronted activ…
  2. … of language fast enough to sustain the interaction. Rather learners generate ut…

The Interdependence Hypothesis

  1. … which serve as a foundation for social interaction. All of this has happened be…
  2. …ment, as well as their skills in social interaction.
  3. …CS is acquired primarily through social interaction and it is used primarily in …

Code Switching and Interaction

  1. …ing might support children in classroom interaction helping them to use all thei…

Characteristics of Modifications for Interaction

  1. interactional Structure:
  2. …r what issues this raises for classroom interaction designed to help students le…
  3. …t of what happens to content in initial interaction between native and non-nativ…

Classroom Routines and Participation Structures

  1. …es impact students’ opportunities for interaction and language development. St…
  2. No opportunity to negotiate meaning in interaction for a purpose. Borrowing, len…
  3. The teacher controlled and structured interaction in limited ways.
  4. …-on-one help and more frequent language interaction was least accessible for tho…

We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom

  1. …is the context it provides students for interaction and negotiating meaning. Thi…
  2. …0 minutes of whole-class, one-at-a-time interaction, a student is lucky to get o…
  3. … acquisition is determined by a complex interaction of a number of critical inpu…

Proficiency Levels Defined

  1. … peers. They seek social acceptance and interaction. By socializing, they get in…
  2. …e skills increase through listening and interaction, learners naturally increase…

pattern

What Is a Speech Community?

  1. …ol we bring more than the pronunciation patterns, lexicon, syntactic structures,…
  2. …ess than others. Some point to cultural patterns to account for differences in s…
  3. …pts. We shared language and interaction patterns with our peers that marked us a…
  4. …use the language and social interaction patterns that come to us. Only when we a…
  5. …on and linguistic styles, registers and patterns will be acceptable in our class…

Inclusive Pedagogy

  1. … sensitivity to the strengths, behavior patterns and needs of students in your c…

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. Concept 2: pattern
  2. Chart 2. The Concept of pattern
  3. …y variability in performance as well as patterns because the very context, tasks…
  4. Literacy development is patterned but not a linear process. As students learn mo…
  5. Second language acquisition is a patterned and gradual process of development ch…
  6. Second language acquisition is a patterned but nonlinear process. As new feature…
  7. …uses on three concepts—Communication, pattern, and Variability—and six accom…
  8. The concept of pattern asks mainstream teachers across all grade levels to under…
  9. … individual learner against the typical pattern of literacy development, they ar…
  10. …ee SL literacy concepts: Communication, pattern, and Variability. Each concept i…

Input and Native Language Acquisition

  1. …es on the important parts of the speech pattern.
  2. …nces the early recognition of the sound patterns of words and their associations…
  3. …is capable of great feats of memory and pattern recognition. Finally, you are su…
  4. … based on very complex systems of sound patterns, word meanings, word structure,…
  5. …are babbling with rhythm and intonation patterns characteristic of your caregive…

Vocabulary Development and Language Transfer

  1. …ildren in all societies learn the basic patterns of their language by the time t…
  2. …ic features such as vocabulary, grammar patterns, and so forth. The other is the…

Classroom Routines and Participation Structures

  1. …utine: Initiate-Response-Feedback (IRF) pattern

Proficiency Levels Defined

  1. …y work toward conforming their language patterns and usage to that of their peer…
  2. …s in the formation of complex syntactic patterns such as negation and question f…

Effective and Appropriate Feedback for English Learners

  1. …ng that they produce. Teachers look for patterns in the student’s work, see wh…
  2. …ning a specific observation of an error pattern and giving concrete suggestions …
  3. …te and express their ideas. Recognizing patterns and developmental nature of err…

Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children

  1. …nciple #3: There are different cultural patterns in language use
  2. …e child is attempting to figure out the patterns and rules that govern the langu…
  3. …erences through classroom communication patterns. For example, some children may…

Schumann's Acculturation Model

  1. Social Dominance patterns

pedagogy

Coercive vs. Collaborative Relations

  1. …m: Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power, pedagogy: Bilingual children in the cros…
  2. …s. These he describes as transformative pedagogy (using teaching that helps stud…
  3. In his book Langauge, Power, and pedagogy (2000), Cummins explains that there ar…
  4. …ir children, the appropriateness of the pedagogy used, and the purposes behind t…

Inclusive Pedagogy

  1. … This final characteristic of Inclusive pedagogy, classroom strategies, recogniz…
  2. Each teacher who embraces the Inclusive pedagogy framework as a tool to guide th…
  3. The aim of Inclusive pedagogy is to advance the education of all students, parti…
  4. Inclusive pedagogy, as a conceptual framework for professional growth, enables t…
  5. The Inclusive pedagogy Framework enables teachers to effectively collaborate to …
  6. …they teach. Through using the Inclusive pedagogy framework, teachers become bett…
  7. Inclusive pedagogy is a coherent and comprehensive framework which begins with a…
  8. …ing the other elements of the Inclusive pedagogy Framework we will next examine …
  9. As educators utilize the Inclusive pedagogy Framework, the main questions and in…
  10. The second characteristic of Inclusive pedagogy, Guiding Principles, rests on th…
  11. …imates this characteristic of Inclusive pedagogy asks that the educator first co…
  12. …rooms. This characteristic of Inclusive pedagogy, Essential Policy, focuses atte…
  13. Inclusive pedagogy is graphically represented as a wheel. Who is this child? Is …

Makoto Critical Incident

  1. BYU-Public School Partnership Inclusive pedagogy Summer Institute (Teemant & Pin…

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the cros…
  2. Plan for variety in pedagogy

Five Curriculum Guidelines

  1. Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the cros…

Indicators of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy

  1. The Standards for Effective pedagogy Framework
  2. The Standards for Effective pedagogy were established through CREDE research and…

Examining Current Realities

  1. …sential Policy portion of the Inclusive pedagogy framework asking the question:…

The Threshold Hypothesis

  1. …ummins, J. (2001). Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the cros…

Text Modification

  1. …ight be isotope, lathe, peninsula, and [pedagogy]. In general, a rich understand…

Understanding BICS and CALP

  1. …ummins, J. (2000). Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the cros…

performances

Inclusive Pedagogy

  1. …s teachers to recognize that a range of performances could be celebrated as stud…

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. …prove the quality of their products and performances.
  2. Principle 2: Types of performances
  3. … Types of Proficiencies and 2) Types of performances. These principles focus on …
  4. …k, Types of Proficiencies, and Types of performances. Teachers who consider thei…
  5. • Assess unassisted and assisted performances (ZPD)
  6. … develop the types of proficiencies and performances needed for academic success…
  7. Principle 2: Types of performances

proficiencies

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. • Assess L1 and L2 proficiencies to individualize learning goals and instructi…
  2. Principle 1: Types of proficiencies
  3. … defined by two principles: 1) Types of proficiencies and 2) Types of Performanc…
  4. Principle 1: Types of proficiencies
  5. …elopment, Errors and Feedback, Types of proficiencies, and Types of Performances…
  6. …orting students to develop the types of proficiencies and performances needed fo…

stages of development

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. Principle 1: stages of development
  2. Principle 1: stages of development
  3. …panying principles: Input, Interaction, stages of development, Errors and Feedba…
  4. …attern is defined by two principles: 1) stages of development and 2) Errors and …

Effective and Appropriate Feedback for English Learners

  1. … and discourse levels. During the early stages of development, we can expect lea…

variability

Communication, Pattern, and Variability

  1. Concept 3: variability
  2. Chart 3. The Concept of variability
  3. …econd language acquisition is marked by variability in performance as well as pa…
  4. The concept of variability—or attending to the individual differences among le…
  5. … concepts—Communication, Pattern, and variability—and six accompanying princ…
  6. …y concepts: Communication, Pattern, and variability. Each concept is defined by …