Acknowledgements1. Language and Identity1.1. What Is a Speech Community?1.2. Coercive vs. Collaborative Relations1.3. Language Minority Stories2. Who Are English Learners?2.1. Reflection Model2.2. Inclusive Pedagogy2.2. Makoto Critical Incident2.3. Assumptions to Rethink about English Learners2.4. Critical Learning Domains3. Understanding Theory3.1. Communication, Pattern, and Variability 3.2. Five Curriculum Guidelines3.3. Indicators of Instructional Conversation (IC)3.4. Indicators of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy3.5. Standards for Effective Pedagogy3.6. Examining Current Realities4. Input4.1. Input and Native Language Acquisition4.2. Input and Second Language Acquisition4.3. The Interdependence Hypothesis4.4. The Threshold Hypothesis4.5. Vocabulary Development and Language Transfer4.6. Text Modification5. Interaction5.1. Code Switching and Interaction5.2. Characteristics of Modifications for Interaction5.3. How Can Teachers Help Second Language Learners Begin to Communicate?5.4. Classroom Routines and Participation Structures5.5. We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom6. Stages of Development6.1. Proficiency Levels Defined7. Errors and Feedback7.1. Points to Remember About Errors7.2. Effective and Appropriate Feedback for English Learners8. Types of Proficiencies8.1. Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children8.2. Instructional Conversation in Native American Classroom 8.3. Student Motivation to Learn8.4. Language Learning Strategies: An Update8.5. Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning9. Types of Performances9.1. Understanding BICS and CALP9.2. The Order of Acquisition and The Order of Use9.3. Schumann's Acculturation Model9.4. Implications From the Threshold and Interdependence Hypotheses9.5. Lily Wong Fillmore’s Cognitive and Social Strategies for Second Language Learners10. Classroom Practices and Language AcquisitionIndex
3.4

Indicators of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy

The Standards for Effective Pedagogy Framework

The Standards for Effective Pedagogy were established through CREDE research and through an extensive analysis of the research and development literature in education and diversity. The standards represent recommendations on which the literature is in agreement across all cultural, racial, and linguistic groups in the United States, all ages levels, and all subject matters. Thus, they express the principles of effective pedagogy for all students. Even for mainstream students, the standards describe the ideal conditions for instructional; but for students at-risk of educational failure, effective classroom implementation of the standards is vital.


Joint Productive Activity (JPA)

Teacher and Students Producing Together

Indicators of Joint Productive Activity

The Teacher:


Language and Literacy Development (LLD)

Developing Language and Literacy Across the Curriculum

Indicators of Language and Literacy Development

The Teacher:


Contextualization (CTX)

Making Meaning: Connecting School to Students’ Lives

Indicators of Contextualization

The Teacher:


Challenging Activities (CA)

Teaching Complex Thinking

Indicators of Challenging Activities

The Teacher:


Instructional Conversation (IC)

Teaching through Conversation

Indicators of Instructional Conversation

The Teacher:


Source

Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE). Reprinted with permission. 


Adapted with permission from:                                                                                             

Teemant, A. & Pinnegar, S. (2007). Understanding Langauge Acquisition Instructional Guide. Brigham Young University-Public School Partnership. 

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